linguistic inequality in pakistan

Linguistic Inequality It is typically a different concept than which runs through the whole chapter as general idea of the linguistic inequality. Pakistan has an estimated population of 195.4 million in 2016, however, the population was 191.71 million in 2015. In Pakistan, … Girls in Pakistan have the right to education. We finally conclude this paper by focusing on the representation of religious minorities and the role These issues should be dealt with effectively through practical and implementable initiatives. In addition to these policies, extensive research is needed for the standardization of the orthographies of these languages. Read the full report here: http://co.lao.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Prioritizing-Needs-September-15-2016.pdf. Urdu 65% Sindhi 15.5% English 10.4% Other languages 9.5% Thus, in Pakistan, linguistic (and social) inequality is mediated through kinds of educational institutions with distinct educational practices related to medium of instruction and tracking of students into the local exam boards or University of Cambridge curricula and examination systems (Mansoor, 2005; Rahman, 1999). UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan “Evaluating health and education of women as well as economic opportunities, Pakistan is … Shandana Khan Mohmand is a Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, and an Associate Fellow at the Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives in Pakistan. Pakistan’s cultural and linguistic diversity has never been a favorite subject in the channels of national discourse either in media, education or academia. To do so, they make use of a unique set of polls covering all … For example, Punjab may be among the most developed province but persistent disparity abounds in southern Punjab (e.g. Most of the sounds are identical in these languages but so far the community researchers haven’t realized this and have written the same sounds with different letters. Pashto, for instance, with its multiple varieties in Pakistan and in Afghanistan, contains different symbols which make it difficult for the reader to articulate. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with sixty percent of its population under the age of thirty. Within the justice system, there remains an overall tolerance of violations of religious freedoms and an inadequate approach towards protecting targets of such violence or effective prosecution of its perpetrators, including both State and non-State actors. (Image credit: Vaigaraiyan via Flickr). The most harmful among the factors for linguistic and cultural chaos is the national policies of education. Instead of being proud of the beautiful linguistic diversity, Pakistani policy and decision makers have always been afraid of it. Forced conversions and desecration of places of worship form a minority of complaints from the selected sample. Report reveals women in Pakistan are simultaneously deprived in child marriages, education, healthcare and employment. Thank you both, please keep working on this issue. The language activists in these communities may know that they, more or less, share the same ancestor and same culture. Pakistan’s poor ranking presents a bleak portrait of the state of modest progress made on female empowerment and gender equality. To reverse this trend, a concerted effort is needed across government, judiciary, and civil society. Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural than urban areas. Her children were also in … Today almost all the comic text messages are related to Pathans and Sikhs. UN Women report shows worrying degree of gender inequality in Pakistan. Enforcing a single language through educational and security policies to achieve an imagined national cohesion is like a Trojan Horse which strikes down the very objectives for which it was intended. inequality, even degrading to severe form of violence, which is rampant in Pakistan. Between provinces, Sindh is the most deprived. Pakistan’s gradual decadence of cultural and linguistic diversity is overshadowed by terrorism, poor governance, and dirty politics. For example, there is a constitutional ban on a non-Muslim being president of the country (as per Article 41(2) of Pakistan’s Constitution) and a lack of laws providing structure and support to religious minority communities. Certain legislation and constitutional amendments further deprived religious minorities of human rights, justice, political equality and economic opportunities. This ‘language sexism’ is biased in the favor of one gender and treat the other discriminately. “Friend, look he (Zubair) drags us back by starting schools in Torwali,” a teacher told his colleague who was discussing the multilingual education initiative by IBT in Bahrain Swat. Yuri Block F 6/12/15 Challenges Pakistani Women Face due to Gender Inequality Many fail to realize, due to long held beliefs and social norms, that gender equality is beneficial to both men and women. The most prestigious educated person is considered one who speaks English well. As a recent report highlights, religious minority groups feel the effects of this legal and political marginalisation and disenfranchisement in their daily lives. This accelerates the “language and culture shift” within society and ends with more chaos and an unending identity crisis. In the wake of the devolution of education to the provinces, the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa government adopted Pashto as a medium of instruction in primary education. Menaal Munshey is a PhD candidate in criminology at the University of Cambridge. Previously, she was a researcher with the United Nations University Centre for Policy Research in Tokyo where she conducted research on terrorism, organised crime, and peacekeeping. Her research and writings explore the fields of political participation, inequality, and the political economy of public policy and service delivery. Religious minorities are largely implicated in these cases and are victims of vigilante violence. “I don’t want to learn Torwali as I understand it. Zubair was recently awarded the Prof. Anita Ghulam Ali Award of Teachers and Education in Emergencies. These grievances indicate the growing disenfranchisement of minority communities in Pakistan who suffer from class-based issues, which are further exacerbated by rampant institutional and individual discrimination on the basis of their religion. This is the same axis along which UNDP Pakistan’s National Human Development Report on Inequality, authored by leading economist Dr. Hafiz Pasha, is based. This can be done through civil society efforts, public awareness drives, capacity building, the provision of legal aid, and the incorporation of these findings in donor and government strategies. Furthermore, it resolved to incorporate four other languages (Hinko, Khowar, Seriaki and Indus Kohistani) to be gradually incorporated in the education at the primary stages. Born and raised in Bahrain Swat, Pakistan, he heads the Institute for Education and Development, a civil society organization working for the conservation of cultural, lingual and natural heritage among the linguistic communities in north Pakistan. Women in Pakistan make up 48.76% of the population according to the 2017 census of Pakistan. Required fields are marked *. The center for this standard can either be Peshawar or Kabul. The Faculty of Law, University of Oxford, Should All Male Prisoners be Required to Have Their Hair Cut? Your email address will not be published. During our interviews with professional people, different types of themes emerged. Even within a province inequality can be glaring. 31st January 2017, As the data shows, minority communities' concerns are complex and reflect the deep discrimination they face in society. INCOME INEQUALITIES IN PAKISTAN AND A STRATEGY TO REDUCE INCOME INEQUALITIES by A. R. Kemal I. Women in Pakistan have played an important role throughout Pakistan's history and they are allowed to vote in elections since 1956. See also Marrakesh Declaration 2016 on the same subject. A myriad of challenges including political instability, gender disparity, growing inequality, and disastrous effects of climate change face the country today. And if somebody speaks either English or Urdu in his own accent, he is regarded as less educated. The linguistic items one knows show the experience of the person. Pakistan’s president has issued a new law to fight sexual assault, following months of protests over two men raping a women along a deserted highway near Lahore. She has over six years of experience Globally and in Pakistan, we integrate the experiences … Many Pakistani scholars focus on the lack of productivity and low literacy levels of the domestic workforce to explain poverty in Pakistan. What is Linguistic Inequality? Income Inequality in Pakistan: An Analysis of Existing Evidence (Economic GROWTH, INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND EMPLOYMENT Generation) (Report) Pakistan Development Review 1984, … Social Inequality and the Dynamics of Political and ethnolinguistic Divides in Pakistan, 1970-2018. Haya is also member of the Board of the Legal Aid Society and Program Director at the Legal Aid Society and the Legal Aid Office, Committee for the Welfare of Prisoners. But the most important is to minimize the income inequality. Read More. Ranjanpur) compared to northern (Lahore, Gujranwala) and central districts (Sargodha, Hafizabad). When a particular language is given an advantage over others speakers of the less developed languages tend to look down on their own languages and cultures and regard them as the barriers in their “development.”. Pakistan is one of the worst countries to live in as a member of a religious minority group, due to the lack of human rights protection accorded to minority communities. Accordingly, we are guided by the UNDP Gender Equality Strategy 2014–2017, advancing the empowerment of women as we support countries in their efforts to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality. There are almost 5000 languages in the world and most of them have apparent sexist predispositions. Pakistan’s blasphemy laws present possibly the most violent example of this: Since 1990, more than 62 people have been killed by blasphemy related vigilante violence. More than 65 different languages are spoken in Pakistan. Hopefully, such initiatives for the remaining languages in the province will also be undertaken. However, as highlighted by a recent report, this does not describe the full extent of the human rights issues faced by minority communities in Pakistan. I mention these as these scholars want to take on the extremists who persecute religious minorities, Your email address will not be published. A standardization in the orthographies with more commonalities not only will make their job easier but also integrate the speakers and enhance their political and social powers. Studies of language-based inequality have hitherto largely focused on the case of linguistic minorities, while far less attention has been paid to the developmental stakes of a more equitable terrain for widely-spoken languages in education, training and access to livelihoods. Pakistan is one of the worst countries to live in as a member of a religious minority group, due to the lack of human rights protection accorded to minority communities. This article reflects on the findings of a new report by The Legal Aid Society. Therefore, the true essence of the religion has been compromised, as is evident in Pakistan. He speaks Punjabi,” said the principal of a private school in Lahore. Constitutional safeguards and legal precedents alone will not be enough to alleviate the suffering of minorities in Pakistan. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Despite its evolution and progression one aspect of language seems to be constant, that is, its role in stimulating gender inequality. According to research conducted at Harvard School of Public Heath, the inequality between males and females has led to an alarming discrepancy: in Pakistan, 65% of Punjabi urban males had completed primary school, but only 10% of rural Balochi and Pathan females completed primary school. She is also a research assistant at the Violence Research Centre, facilitator of Learning Together at HMP Grendon, and senior research coordinator at the Legal Aid Office in Karachi. Pashto needs a central standard form similar to that of English as BBC English. A defining feature of Pakistan’s economy and society is the inequality of income and productive assets. Features of Indian multilingualism are discussed to show that, despite several positive forces favoring maintenance of minority languages, languages are subjected to inequality and discrimination. Inequality in both urban and rural areas also increased in Pakistan during the 1990s, which enhanced the negative impact on poverty. Ultimately, the report shows that the odds are clearly stacked, in a wide range of ways, along gender, ethnic, linguistic, class and sexual orientation lines – to name but a few. explore the impact of educational inequality in Pakistan on economic 1 As per Government of Pakistan (2008) literacy is defined as “Ability to read and write simple statements in any language and to be able to do simple calculations”. It relates to the linguistic items that a person knows. But one shouldn’t jump to conclusions. In Pakistan, only about 1 percent of the population is registered in the tax system and the government collects just 9 percent of the country’s wealth in taxes which is the lowest in the world. Essay On Gender Inequality In Pakistan 949 Words | 4 Pages. Although agriculture is the main activity in rural society, a significant percentage of the rural labor force, estimated at more than 40%, depends completely on nonfarm activities. These themes are Income Level, Geographical Inequality, Gender Inequality, System of Education, Feudalism, Role of Government, etc. More about Essay On Gender Inequality In Pakistan. Menaal Munshey and Haya Emaan Zahid, “Inequality and Discrimination faced by Religious Minorities in Pakistan” (OxHRH, 31 January 2017) [Date of Access]. The principal drove away a student whose father, a lover of his language, brought him to the school. Varieties are no threat to a language, rather it enriches it. This is the result of a particular kind of education we have experienced in Pakistan. From Paralysis to Action: A Peace Plan for Palestinians and Israelis to Consider. I will attend the Women Education Center when Urdu starts there,” an illiterate Torwali woman told this scribe when asked to attend the women literacy centers established in the community by Idara Baraye Taleem-o-Taraqi (IBT) with the financial support of USAID. It may or may not interest you, a group of North American Muslim scholars (yaqeen institute) are working on a document for the protection of minorities in places like Pakistan. Ghosh not only presents the reader with a political vision that questions the ethno-linguistic and cultural divides created by the fiery resurgence of nationalist ideologies but also interweaves that vision with the human story. Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. Is It Time For The Arab Gulf States To Support Alternative Palestinian Parties? Next, the one who speaks Urdu well. Minority communities’ lives are increasingly marred by negative social identity, insecurity and a lack of human rights protection. More and more women in Pakistan are fed up with gender inequality. between language, geography and inequality in Pakistan and study in detail the changing structure of ethnolinguistic divides, class cleavages and their intersection in light of our electoral data. During General Zia ul Haq’s dictatorial regime, a series of policies were adopted that have negatively impacted religious minorities. Read other articles by Zubair. Pakistan has literacy rate 58percent in 2012, (Only 22 percent of girls, compared to 47 percent boys, complete primary schooling (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2012).This is included people who can write and … To cope with the hegemony of a single language educational policies need revision. After collecting and analysing 629 qualitative interviews from the districts of Sukkur, Larkana and Ghotki in Sindh, the following findings are highlighted: As the above findings highlight, participants mostly cited the issues of acquiring national identity cards, access to reliable electricity, unemployment, crimes, and access to educational opportunities. Using Different Native Languages in the Classroom: Mostly the Pakistani students faced this kind of … In 2013, there were 39 blasphemy cases registered against 359 people, and over 40 people are on death row for blasphemy. The High Court of England and Wales doubts it. The prevalence of customary laws became more visible as Islam travelled far and wide. INTRODUCTION The basic objective of economic development is improvements in the living standards of the common man and for that just economic growth would not be sufficient. Just How Similar are Pashtun and Jewish People? Many hindrances in reading and writing a language rest in the orthography or its writing system. For example, in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan all the languages other than Hindko and Burushaski are Dardic of the Indo-Aryan branch of languages. This results in the perpetuation of a climate of impunity. working with individuals and groups of people who are in conflict with the law; primarily those incarcerated as under trial prisoners. St Cross Road, Haya Emaan Zahid is a barrister-at-law, who read law at the University College London, United Kingdom. Muslim‟s religious book Quran is in Arabic language. Poverty rose more sharply in the rural areas in the 1990s, and in FY1999 the incidence of rural poverty (36.3 percent) was significantly higher than urban poverty (22.6 percent). There is thus a need to address the socio-economic issues that affect the day-to-day life of members of these communities, while not losing sight of the larger issues of forced conversion and blasphemy. “Out, out. Recent years have seen an intensification of violent persecution of religious minorities. As of 2006, only 50% of the population was literate and government spending on education was still only half of the average of many other developing countries (2% versus 3-4%).However 3-4 years later, improvements led literacy levels to climb up to 60% of the population. Of these languages awarded the Prof. Anita Ghulam Ali Award of Teachers and education in.! Marred by negative social identity, insecurity and a lack of productivity and low literacy levels of the of! Female empowerment and gender equality empowerment and gender equality national policies of education Prisoners be to... In Pakistan harmful among the most prestigious educated person is considered one who speaks well! 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